Vaccinations

Please find below a full list of vaccinations we cover, what they are and what illnesses can be derived from them.

Name What is it? The Illness
Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is spread through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish or through person to person contact where personal hygiene is poor.

Hepatitis A occurs worldwide, mostly in countries where sanitation is poor. It is now rare in Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. Most cases imported into Britain have been contracted in the Indian sub-continent.

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur. Infection with hepatitis A results in lifelong immunity.
Hepatitis A Junior Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is spread through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish or through person to person contact where personal hygiene is poor.

 

Hepatitis A occurs worldwide, mostly in countries where sanitation is poor. It is now rare in Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. Most cases imported into Britain have been contracted in the Indian sub-continent.

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur. Infection with hepatitis A results in lifelong immunity.
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is an acute infection of the liver. It is usually spread through contaminated blood via sexual intercourse, needle sharing, blood transfusions and injections.The virus can also be passed from mother to baby. Tattooing, body piercing and acupunture are other ways in which the virus may be spread.

Hepatitis B occurs worldwide. Areas where there there is a higher risk of exposure to hepatitis B include Eastern Europe, Russia, India, China, South and Central America, Africa, South East Asia and many south pacific islands.

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar however infection with hepatitis B is more serious than hepatitis A. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur.

The illness lasts for about six months. Occasionally, the virus can persist for more than six months in individuals who become chronically infected with hepatitis B. These individuals may be referred to as carriers. Up to a quarter of individuals who are carriers have progressive liver disease which can cause cirrhosis and cancers of the liver.

Hepatitis A+B (Twinrix) Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is spread through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish or through person to person contact where personal hygiene is poor.

Hepatitis A occurs worldwide, mostly in countries where sanitation is poor. It is now rare in Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. Most cases imported into Britain have been contracted in the Indian sub-continent.

Hepatitis B is an acute infection of the liver. It is usually spread through contaminated blood via sexual intercourse, needle sharing, blood transfusions and injections.The virus can also be passed from mother to baby. Tattooing, body piercing and acupunture are other ways in which the virus may be spread.

Hepatitis B occurs worldwide. Areas where there there is a higher risk of exposure to hepatitis B include Eastern Europe, Russia, India, China, South and Central America, Africa, South East Asia and many south pacific islands.

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur. Infection with hepatitis A results in lifelong immunity.

 

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar however infection with hepatitis B is more serious than hepatitis A. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur.

The illness lasts for about six months. Occasionally, the virus can persist for more than six months in individuals who become chronically infected with hepatitis B. These individuals may be referred to as carriers. Up to a quarter of individuals who are carriers have progressive liver disease which can cause cirrhosis and cancers of the liver.

Typhoid Injection Typhoid is an infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi which causes severe symptoms in the digestive system. It can be life-threatening, but if treated early antibiotics are effective.

The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. It is primarily for this reason that it is mainly seen in areas with poor sanitation/living conditions.

The incubation period is 10 to 20 days and depends on, among other things, how large a dose of bacteria has been taken in.

In the mild disease, the bacterium is eliminated very early in the course of the disease and there are perhaps only mild symptoms. It is possible to become a healthy carrier of infection.

A more serious case of typhoid may include high temperature, sweating, cough, headache, vomiting and constipation (diarrhoea in children).

Typhoid Capsules – Vivotif (Oral Live) Typhoid is an infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi which causes severe symptoms in the digestive system. It can be life-threatening, but if treated early antibiotics are effective.

The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. It is primarily for this reason that it is mainly seen in areas with poor sanitation/living conditions.

The incubation period is 10 to 20 days and depends on, among other things, how large a dose of bacteria has been taken in.

In the mild disease, the bacterium is eliminated very early in the course of the disease and there are perhaps only mild symptoms. It is possible to become a healthy carrier of infection.

A more serious case of typhoid may include high temperature, sweating, cough, headache, vomiting and constipation (diarrhoea in children).

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Typhoid + Hepatitis A Typhoid is an infectious disease caused by Salmonella typhi which causes severe symptoms in the digestive system. It can be life-threatening, but if treated early antibiotics are effective.

The disease is transmitted from human to human via food or drinking water, and it is therefore mainly hygiene and sanitary conditions that determine its spread. It is primarily for this reason that it is mainly seen in areas with poor sanitation/living conditions.

 

Hepatitis A is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is spread through contaminated water and food, especially shellfish or through person to person contact where personal hygiene is poor.

Hepatitis A occurs worldwide, mostly in countries where sanitation is poor. It is now rare in Western Europe, Scandinavia, North America, Japan, New Zealand and Australia. Most cases imported into Britain have been contracted in the Indian sub-continent.

 

The incubation period is 10 to 20 days and depends on, among other things, how large a dose of bacteria has been taken in.

In the mild disease, the bacterium is eliminated very early in the course of the disease and there are perhaps only mild symptoms. It is possible to become a healthy carrier of infection.

A more serious case of typhoid may include high temperature, sweating, cough, headache, vomiting and constipation (diarrhoea in children).

 

The illness of all forms of hepatitis is similar. Symptoms include mild fever, gastro-intestinal upset, nausea/vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Jaundice may also occur. Infection with hepatitis A results in lifelong immunity.

Polio/Tetanus/Diphtheria Diphtheria is an acute respiratory infection caused by the diphtheria bacterium. This is a serious infection with a high mortality rate, even in Western Europe. The disease is mainly transmitted by droplets from the nose or throat being passed from person to person, e.g. by coughing or sneezing.

 

Tetanus is a bacterial infection usually spread through skin wounds or cuts. The bacterium produces a neurotoxin which enters the blood stream and spreads rapidly throughout the body.

 

Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease, which mainly affects young children. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water, and multiplies in the intestine, from where it can invade the nervous system.

The incubation period, from infection to symptoms, is usually two to five days.

Diphtheria bacteria can destroy the mucous membrane, so that a thick coating is formed causing serious inflammation of the throat, sometimes causing asphyxiation. Local symptoms consist of a sore throat, coughing and breathing difficulties. Damage to the heart and nervous system occur in advanced stages. Death rates vary depending on country and treatment available (up to 40% in poorer countries).

 

The incubation period varies between 3-21 days.

Tetanus initially causes spasm of the muscles nearest to the infected wound and as it spreads other symptoms start, usually in the face. The most common early sign is a spasm of the jaw muscles – known as lockjaw. Spasms can then occur in the throat muscles, making it difficult to swallow and can become serious with arching of the spine.

 

Initial symptoms of polio include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness in the neck, and pain in the limbs. In a small proportion of cases, the disease causes paralysis, which is often permanent. Among those paralysed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized.

Meningitis ACWY Meningococcal meningitis is an acute bacterial disease that can cause systemic infection. There are 13 different serogroups of meningitis of which groups B and C are most common in the UK. Serogroup A and the less common W135 can cause serious epidemics which occur predominantly in the African meningitis belt from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east. These serotypes have also been responsible for outbreaks in Saudi Arabia during the Hajj pilgrimages and in the city of Moscow in Russia in the past. Symptoms of meningitis usually include one or more of the following;

·          Sudden onset of fever

·          Intense headache

·          Nausea

·          Vomiting

·          Photophobia (intolerance of light)

·          Stiff neck

·          Petechial rash (blood spots under the skin)

If one or more of the symptoms above occur, medical attention must be sought immediately.

Japanese Encephalitis Japanese encephalitis is a viral disease found in East Asia. The infection is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. This particular type of mosquito favours breeding sites in and around rice paddies and piggeries.

Most cases occur after the monsoon seasons in China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Nepal, India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Korea, Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.

Japanese encephalitis causes headache, convulsions, encephalitis and meningitis. Severe disease can cause permanent neurological damage. About 30% of those with signs of infection will die from the disease.
Rabies 0,7 and 28 Days Rabies is an acute viral infection that causes inflammation of the spinal cord and the brain (encephalomyelitis). It is usually spread through an infected bite or scratch from a rabid animal, most commonly through a dog bite. In other parts of the world other animals such as bats, monkeys and cats are a source of potential exposure to the disease. Very rarely, the disease has been spread through body fluids and transplant tissues.

Rabies is found in all continents of the world except Antarctica. Bats in all countries are considered to be a rabies risk. Most human cases of rabies occur in Asia, Africa and South and Latin America.

 

Bat bites in any country must be considered a risk for rabies and medical advice should be sought urgently following bat exposure.

The incubation period for the disease is usually between 20-60 days but may range from 5 days to 1 year in some cases. The virus causes headache, fever, general weakness and numbness or tingling around the wound site. The disease progresses to muscle spasms, hydrophobia (fear of water) and convulsions. Death is the usual outcome if infected with rabies virus.
Cholera 0 and 7 Days Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection. It can kill healthy adults within hours.

 

The disease is characterized in its most severe form by a sudden onset of acute watery diarrhoea that can lead to death by severe dehydration and kidney failure. The extremely short incubation period – two hours to five days – enhances the potentially explosive pattern of outbreaks, as the number of cases can rise very quickly. Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that affects both children and adults.

 

Cholera is an easily treatable disease. The prompt administration of oral rehydration salts to replace lost fluids nearly always results in cure. In especially severe cases, intravenous administration of fluids may be required to save the patient’s life.

 

MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Measles a highly infectious viral illness, which spreads rapidly from person to person. It is one of the leading causes of death among young children, the majority occurring in developing countries where immunisation is patchy (WHO 2013).

 

Mumps is a viral infection mainly of childhood and affects the salivary glands.

 

Rubella is an acute viral illness that is spread easily from person to person by coughing or sneezing. It is mainly an infection of children and is generally mild in this group. However, rubella in pregnancy is a severe and potentially fatal illness for the unborn baby.

The initial symptoms of Measles are similar to the common cold with runny nose, cough, red and watery eyes and fever. This is followed by a rash, which spreads throughout the body.

Complications of measles tend to occur in children under 5 years or adults over 20 years and include encephalitis (infection of the brain) and pneumonia (infection of the lungs).

 

Symptoms for Mumps appear 2 to 3 weeks after infection and include headache, fever, muscle ache and swelling of the salivary glands.

It tends to be mild in children, but in adults, can lead to complications such as meningitis, deafness and orchitis (infection of the testicles).

 

Rubella is an acute viral illness that is spread easily from person to person by coughing or sneezing. It is mainly an infection of children and is generally mild in this group. However, rubella in pregnancy is a severe and potentially fatal illness for the unborn baby.

 

The MMR vaccine is effective at preventing all three illnesses and can be given from 12 months of age. It is particularly important to check if you are vaccinated against MMR before travelling as infection is prevalent in Asia, Africa and South America.

Because the illness is easily transmitted through air, MMR immunity is necessary for certain jobs.

 

Tick-Borne-Encephalitis Tick borne encephalitis is a virus spread to humans through the bite of an infected tick. The virus is found in small mammals and domestic cattle. Incubation period is 7-14 days. Initial symptoms include flu like malaise with lethargy, fever and headaches. Approximately one third of symptomatic people then develop a second phase of the disease with inflammation of the nervous system (meningitis). One third of these cases lead to inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) which can cause paralysis and death. Adults over the age of 40 are at higher risk of developing encephalitis.
Yellow Fever Yellow fever is found only in parts of Central and South America and Sub-saharan Africa.

The cause is a virus that is spread through the bite of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito which predominantly bites during daylight hours. It exists in three transmission cycles; Jungle, Urban and Intermediate yellow fever.

 

Transmission Cycles

 

Jungle yellow fever – is transmitted among non-human hosts (mainly monkeys) by forest mosquitoes. Humans can become infected when they spend time in the forest and can become the source of urban yellow fever outbreaks.

 

Urban yellow fever – is spread to urban areas by mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, that have bitten monkeys or humans infected with yellow fever. Urban yellow fever can occur in populated areas in close proximity to forests where infected monkeys and the mosquitoes can be found.

Both jungle and urban cases occur in Africa (especially west Africa). Urban cases are rare in the Americas.

 

Intermediate yellow fever – occurs only in Africa in humid savannah regions where mosquitoes infected both monkeys and humans causing localised outbreaks.

The incubation period is usually short, 3-6 days. Symptoms of the disease include sudden onset of fever, backache, generalised muscle pain, nausea and vomiting. Jaundice can also be seen early in the disease and this intensifies as the disease progresses. Infection with yellow fever results in lifelong natural immunity in individuals who survive. Up to 60% of those infected with yellow fever will die from the disease.