Vaccinations

Diseases (A-Z)

Adult

Cholera

The cholera vaccine is available as an inactivated oral vaccination and is thiomersal-free. The course of vaccinations should be finished at least 1 week before travel.6

For adults, 2 doses (given 1 to 6 weeks apart) can provide protection for up to 2 years. A reinforcing dose is given after 2 years.

Young children require 3 doses of vaccine to establish effective immunity.6

The vaccine does not provide complete protection. For example, it does not protect against all strains of cholera. Therefore, it is still important to take precautions with food, water and personal hygiene.4

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Diphtheria

The diphtheria vaccine is now only given as part of combined products:

  • Diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated polio/Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines (DTaP/IPV/ Hib).
  • Diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated polio vaccines (DTaP/IPV or dTaP/IPV).
  • Tetanus/diphtheria/inactivated polio (Td/IPV)

These vaccines are inactivated, do not contain live organisms and cannot cause the diseases against which they protect. It can therefore be given safely to people with immunosuppression (including those with HIV) and to pregnant and breast-feeding women.5

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Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is an inactivated vaccine. It is available for adults and children. The hepatitis A single vaccine is given as two doses:

  • 1st dose is ideally recommended 2 weeks before travel to develop immunity. It protects for about 1 year.
  • 2nd dose is recommended ideally 6-12 months after the first dose. It protects for about 25 years.
  • A booster dose of hepatitis A vaccine after 25 years can be given to those at risk of infection

Combination vaccines are also available:

  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis A and typhoid fever 8

The doses of the combined vaccines need to be given at slightly different time intervals. The travel clinic pharmacist will be able to provide further information.

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Hepatitis A + B

Combination vaccines are also available:

  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis A and typhoid fever 8

The doses of the combined vaccines need to be given at slightly different time intervals. The travel clinic pharmacist will be able to provide further information.

More information               Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

Several well-tolerated inactivated hepatitis B vaccines are available as well as combined hepatitis A/B products.1

There are many different immunisation schedules for hepatitis B vaccine which depend on the vaccine product used and how quickly protection is needed for pre or post exposure.7

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Japanese Encephalitis

The JE vaccination is suitable for adults and children aged 2 months and over.

The vaccine is given as an injection of 2 doses. The second dose is usually given 28 days after the first dose to obtain full protection. An accelerated schedule is available for adults aged 18-65 years, where the second dose is given after 7 days following the first dose.

With both schedules, the dose of the second vaccine should be completed at least 7 days before travelling to an area where there is a risk of JE.

For travellers who continue to be at risk of infection, a first booster dose of the vaccine should be given 12 to 24 months after the first dose. A second booster can be given after 10 years to those who remain at risk.5

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Meningococcal Meningitis ACWY

There are three types of vaccines against the following meningococcal infections:

  • MenB vaccine – protects only against group B
  • MenC vaccine – protects against group C only
  • MenACWY vaccine – protects against groups A, C, W and Y5

The vaccines stimulates the immune system to protect against meningococcal infection in case of infection with the bacteria.1

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Measles

The Measles vaccine is given as part of the MMR vaccination which contains live, attenuated (modified) strains of measles, mumps and rubella viruses. MMR vaccine does not contain thiomersal or any other preservatives.5

More Information          Mumps          Rubella

Mumps

The Mumps vaccine is given as part of the MMR vaccination which contains live, attenuated (modified) strains of measles, mumps and rubella viruses. MMR vaccine does not contain thiomersal or any other preservatives.3

More Information           Measles          Rubella

Polio

The polio vaccine is now only given as part of combined products:

  • Diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated polio vaccine/Haemophilus influenzaetype b (DTaP/IPV/Hib)
  • Diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis/inactivated polio vaccine (DTaP/IPV)
  • Tetanus/diphtheria/inactivated polio vaccine (Td/IPV)7

These vaccines are inactivated, do not contain live organisms and cannot cause the diseases against which they protect. It can therefore be given safely to people with immunosuppression (including those with HIV) and to pregnant and breast-feeding women.

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Tetanus

A total of 5 doses of vaccine at the appropriate intervals are considered to give satisfactory long-term protection. The UK schedule for primary immunisation is as follows:

  • Children <10 years: at 2, 3 and 4 months of age
  • Children >10 years and adults: the primary course is 3 doses

Those who miss a dose need to resume the schedule but do not need to have repeat doses. There should be a minimum for one month in between doses of the vaccine.

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Rabies

There are two rabies vaccines available in the UK, both of which are inactivated. The vaccine is highly effective. It stimulates the body to make antibodies against the rabies virus. These antibodies protect against illness should infection with the virus occur.

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Rubella

The Rubella vaccine is given as part of the MMR vaccination which contains live, attenuated (modified) strains of measles, mumps and rubella viruses. MMR vaccine does not contain thiomersal or any other preservatives.5

More Information            Measles          Mumps

Tick-Borne Encephalitis

A vaccine against TBE is available for children over 1 year and adults. The vaccine is inactivated and does not contain thiomersal. The schedule consists of 3 doses given on:

  • 1st dose: Day 0
  • 2nd dose: 1-3 months after the 1st dose
  • 3rd dose: 5-12 months after the 2nd dose

A booster dose is recommended every 3 years after the 3rd dose if the individual continues to be at risk.6

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Typhoid (Oral Capsules)

Immunisation against typhoid fever can also be taken orally. A capsule would need to be taken on each of days 1, 3 and 5.

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Typhoid + Hepatitis A

A combination vaccine is available for Typhoid and Hepatitis A. It is for people aged over 12 years old. You will need 1 vaccine before you travel.

More Information          Hepatitis A

Yellow Fever

Yellow fever vaccine is available for adults and children aged 9 months or older.

The vaccine is a live attenuated form of the virus administered as a single dose. Protection begins by the tenth day after vaccination. It should therefore be given at least 10 days prior to travel to the high risk area, to allow sufficient immunity to develop. Once given the vaccine lasts for life.

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Pediatric

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is an inactivated vaccine. It is available for adults and children. The hepatitis A single vaccine is given as two doses:

  • 1st dose is ideally recommended 2 weeks before travel to develop immunity. It protects for about 1 year.
  • 2nd dose is recommended ideally 6-12 months after the first dose. It protects for about 25 years.
  • A booster dose of hepatitis A vaccine after 25 years can be given to those at risk of infection

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Hepatitis A+B

Combination vaccines are also available:

  • Hepatitis A and hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis A and typhoid fever 8

The doses of the combined vaccines need to be given at slightly different time intervals. The travel clinic pharmacist will be able to provide further information.

More information               Hepatitis B

 

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B vaccination is routinely available as part of the NHS vaccination schedule to all babies at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age.6

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Tick-Borne Encephalitis

A vaccine against TBE is available for children over 1 year and adults. The vaccine is inactivated and does not contain thiomersal. The schedule consists of 3 doses given on:

  • 1st dose: Day 0
  • 2nd dose: 1-3 months after the 1st dose
  • 3rd dose: 5-12 months after the 2nd dose

A booster dose is recommended every 3 years after the 3rd dose if the individual continues to be at risk.6

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Specialty Vaccinations

Chickenpox

The chickenpox vaccine is a live vaccine and contains a small amount of weakened chickenpox-causing virus. The vaccine stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that will help protect against chickenpox.

The vaccination is suitable for adults and children over the age of 1.

The vaccine is usually given as 2 separate injections, 4 to 8 weeks apart.6 Two doses of the vaccination give 98% protection to children and 75% protection in teenagers and adults.7

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Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

There are two HPV vaccines available in the UK:

  • Bivalent vaccine (protects against two strains of HPV – aimed over time to reduce the number of cases of cervical cancer)
  • Quadrivalent vaccine (protects against four strains of HPV- it also protects against genital warts as well as cervical cancer)1

The above vaccines do not contain thiomersal. They do not contain live organisms and cannot cause the diseases against which they protect against.3

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Meningitis B

The Meningitis B vaccine is made from proteins found on the surface of the meningococcal bacteria. They stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to protect against future exposures to meningococcal bacteria.

The Meningitis B vaccine is likely to cause fever in babies within 24 hours of the vaccination. It is important to give the baby liquid paracetamol after the vaccination to reduce risk of fever.

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Shingles

A shingles vaccine is available on the NHS for people who are aged 70 and 78. It helps reduce the risk of getting shingles. It is still possible to get shingles after being vaccinated but the symptoms are much milder.3

A live, attenuated (weakened) shingles vaccination is available in the UK. The vaccine is effective for at least 5 years post vaccination.4

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Tuberculosis BCG Vaccine

BCG vaccine contains a live attenuated strain derived from M. bovis. BCG vaccine does not contain thiomersal or any other preservatives.

BCG is not usually recommended for people aged over 16 years unless the risk of exposure is great (e.g. healthcare or laboratory workers who are at occupational risk).5

Although immunity may wane over time, reinforcing doses are not recommended.5

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Flu

Influenza

In the UK, flu vaccines are prepared in advance of the winter season. The vaccines  available are:

  • Trivalent (protects against 3 strains)
  • Quadrivalent (protects against 4 strains)
  • Adjuvanted trivalent (same as the trivalent, recommended for over 65)

Following vaccination, protection is thought to last for approximately one year, although this may be less for the elderly. Therefore, it is vital to get vaccinated every year.

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Pneumococcal Pneumonia

Healthy people who are at low risk are also recommended to be vaccinated as it reduces their time off work as well as promoting herd immunity.

People who think they may be eligible for the pneumococcal vaccine under the NHS should contact their GP.

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