Typhoid + Hepatitis A

About Typhoid

Key Fact: In general, mortality is low (<1%) where antibiotic treatment is available.

Faecal Oral: Consumption of food or water contaminated with faeces.

Symptoms: Fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, fever, constipation or diarrhoea (depending on age).

Severe Case: Brain dysfunction, delirium, intestinal perforation, death.

Precautions: Vaccination; Avoid raw / undercooked meat, seafood, salads and uncooked fruit or vegetables; Avoid drinking tap water (including fruit drinks), as well as drinks containing ice; Frequent hand washing.

About Hepatitis A

Key Fact: Recovery from the illness can take people weeks or months, leading to significant time absent from work, school, or daily life.

Faecal Oral: Ingestion of contaminated food or water, close personal or sexual contact with an infected person, intravenous drug use.

Cases: 126 million cases worldwide annually (estimated)

Symptoms: Fever, malaise, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark-coloured urine and jaundice

Severe case: In rare instances, acute liver failure that can result in death2

Precautions: Vaccination; Personal hygiene practices, such as regular hand-washing with safe water after using the toilet and before preparing food; Exercise caution when consuming food you have not prepared, or drinks made with water (including ice cubes); Avoid eating raw or undercooked shellfish.